As a patient who last took biology 40 years ago, much of what was presented at the American Association for Cancer Research’s “Basic Science of Sarcomas” conference flew over my head. But even if you and I don’t know what a TLR4 agonist GLA-SE is, I hope you can get a sense of the ways doctors and scientists are working on better treatments for sarcoma.
|Michael Dyer, PhD|
Dr. Dyer used mice with a piece of human Ewing sarcoma grafted onto them (“xenografts”). He gave them a PARP inhibitor with the drugs irinotecan and temozolamide. Increasing the dose of irinotecan made the combination much more effective.
“Irinotecan has been around for a million years,” Kurt Weiss, MD, of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, said later. “Combination therapy is going to be huge. If we had not one more drug developed, we’d be fine. We need to use drugs smarter.”
Testing drug combinations takes time, money and the cooperation of the companies that own the different drugs. As researchers learn more about the biology of different cancers, they are making better guesses of what combinations will work.
|Karen Cichowski, PhD|
She taught us that researchers may not grasp how harsh drugs will be on humans, just by trying them in mice first.
Dr. Cichowski is also working on adding an mTOR inhibitor to either HDAC or HSP90 inhibitors for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.
|Elaine Mardis, PhD|
Cancer gobbles up more glucose than does normal tissue. The trick is to starve the tumor, but not other cells. “The brain needs glucose, too,” said Matthew Vander Heiden, MD, PhD, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. His lab looks at the metabolism of cancer cells, with the realization that the tumor environment and tumor cell of origin make a difference. The metabolism of leiomyosarcoma of the kidney, for example, will differ from a bone sarcoma, he said.
|Brian Van Tine, MD, PhD|
Rama Khokha, PhD, of the Prince Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto, said a study of RANKL signaling in osteosarcoma led to a phase 2 clinical trial for denosumab. She helped develop Lentihop, a technology that uses lentiviruses to inject normal cells with elements to turn them into cancer. The process can help identify cancer genes and pathways. She is offering the tech to others.
|Cigall Kadoch, PhD|
Research on an LSD1 inhibitor for Ewing sarcoma led to the drug SP-2577, said Stephen Lessnick, MD, PhD, of Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. “This is a very, very encouraging molecule in pre-clinical development.”
Pancras Hogendoorn, MD, PhD, of Leiden University in the Netherlands, also studies Ewing. By using zebrafish, he can see a 3-D image of a tumor in a living animal.
The number of possible combinations of immune therapy drugs outnumber sarcoma patients, and collaboration will be needed to figure out what works, said Robert Maki, MD, PhD, of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. With 70+ subtypes of sarcoma, he wondered whether researchers will focus on the biology first or look at patients who have exceptional responses.
A promising sign is the recent announcement by some of the companies with immunotherapy drugs that they are working with one another on combinations.
|Karolina Palucka, MD, PhD|
|Seth Pollack, MD|
David Langenau, PhD, of Harvard, described how NOTCH/SNAI1 inhibition may help children whose embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma has returned.
The Pax3:Foxo1 fusion gene can cause chemotherapy to fail in some children with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, said Charles Keller, MD, of the Children’s Cancer Therapy Development Institute of Beaverton, Ore. His team is researching whether the addition of the HDAC inhibitor entinostat to chemo will make it more effective.
Questions? Ask them in the comment section; I’ll answer them the best that I can.